Każdy z nas jakoś szuka swojego szczęścia. Każdy z nas inaczej to „szczęście” definiuje. Naukowcy z Harvardu przez 75 lat obserwowali grupę ponad 700 ludzi, część z nich bardzo wykształcona i zamożna, inni skromnie żyjący albo nawet ze społecznego marginesu. Eksperyment, najdłuższy tego typu na świecie, trwa nadal, a jego szef podsumowuje wnioski z dotychczasowych badań. Czy są uniwersalne czynniki wpływające na ludzkie zadowolenie?
Od dziś, w każdy poniedziałek na tym blogu ukaże się kolejna propozycja jednej prezentacji TED’a do posłuchania, zastanowienia się. Wszystkie one dotyczyć będą tematyki omawianej na blogu.
UWAGA: na końcu tego wpisu wyjaśniono jak można, w różnych wariantach, korzystać z materiałów pomocniczych podanych poniżej.
Robert Waldinger What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness
- Author, title, link
- TRUE/FALSE questions
- Open questions
- English script [[[with Polish explanations of selected vocabulary]]]
- Polish script (unavailable)
- Answers to TRUE/FALSE questions
- Author, title, link
Robert Waldinger “What makes a good life? Lessons from the longest study on happiness”
- TRUE/FALSE questions
- Millenials is a name for a generation of people who are now retired. TRUE/FALSE
- Many young people think that fame and money are the most valuable goals. TRUE/FALSE
- The study described in the talk has been in progress for over 70 years. TRUE/FALSE
- The speaker has been the director of this study from the very beginning. TRUE/FALSE
- The study focused on people living only in poor districts of Boston. TRUE/FALSE
- There are many similar studies carried out in other countries, which continue for more than 50 years. TRUE/FALSE
- Apart from asking questions, the researchers carried out also some medical examinations. TRUE/FALSE
- The perception of study participants on what the most important elements in their lives are evolved with time. TRUE/FALSE
- Researchers found that living in any marriage is always better than living in an informal relation. TRUE/FALSE
- What matters is not how many friends you have but what the quality of your relations is. TRUE/FALSE
- Being in a good relation is good for your body and for your brain. TRUE/FALSE
- If your partnership or marriage involves small and frequent quarrels, your marriage cannot be good. TRUE/FALSE
- If you are young there is nothing you can do to increase chances for enjoying your retirement. TRUE/FALSEOpen questions
- Do you agree with the general recommendations / lessons learned from the study?
- In your opinion, what can a young person do to increase his/her chances of having a happy life?
- How do social media influence the process of establishing and maintaing good relations with other people?
- English script [[[with Polish translation of selected vocabulary]]]
What keeps us healthy and happy as we go through life? If you were going to invest now in your future best self [[[inwestować w samego siebie]]], where would you put your time and your energy? There was a recent survey of millennials [[[pokolenie urodzone w latach 90-tych]]] asking them what their most important life goals were, and over 80 percent said that a major life goal [[[główny cel życiowy]]] for them was to get rich. And another 50 percent of those same young adults said that another major life goal was to become famous [[[sławny]]].
And we’re constantly told to lean in to work [[[wyróżniać się w pracy]]], to push [[[tu: starać się]]] harder and achieve [[[osiągać]]] more. We’re given the impression that these are the things that we need to go after [[[poszukiwać]]] in order to have a good life. Pictures of entire lives, of the choices that people make and how those choices work out [[[skutkować]]] for them, those pictures are almost impossible to get. Most of what we know about human life we know from asking people to remember the past, and as we know, hindsight [[[spojrzenie wstecz]]] is anything but 20/20 [[[to nie jest nic na 100%]]]. We forget vast amounts of what happens to us in life, and sometimes memory is downright creative [[[wręcz kreatywna]]].
But what if we could watch entire lives as they unfold [[[rozwijać]]] through time? What if we could study people from the time that they were teenagers [[[nastolatki]]] all the way into old age to see what really keeps people happy and healthy?
We did that. The Harvard Study of Adult Development may be the longest study of adult life that’s ever been done. For 75 years, we’ve tracked [[[śledzić]]] the lives of 724 men, year after year, asking about their work, their home lives, their health, and of course asking all along the way [[[cały czas pytając]]] without knowing how their life stories were going to turn out [[[jak im się życie potoczy]]].
Studies like this are exceedingly rare [[[niezwykle rzadkie]]]. Almost all projects of this kind fall apart [[[upadać]]] within a decade because too many people drop out of the study, or funding for the research dries up [[[wysychać]]], or the researchers get distracted [[[zmieniać zainteresowania]]], or they die, and nobody moves the ball further down the field. But through a combination of luck and the persistence [[[upartość]]] of several generations of researchers, this study has survived. About 60 of our original 724 men are still alive, still participating in the study, most of them in their 90s. And we are now beginning to study the more than 2,000 children of these men. And I’m the fourth director of the study.
Since 1938, we’ve tracked the lives of two groups of men. The first group started in the study when they were sophomores [[[studenci I roku]]] at Harvard College. They all finished college during World War II, and then most went off to serve in the war. And the second group that we’ve followed was a group of boys from Boston’s poorest neighborhoods [[[najbiedniejsza dzielnica Bostonu]]], boys who were chosen for the study specifically because they were from some of the most troubled and disadvantaged [[[upośledzony]]] families in the Boston of the 1930s. Most lived in tenements [[[kamienice czynszowe]]], many without hot and cold running water.
When they entered the study, all of these teenagers were interviewed. They were given medical exams. We went to their homes and we interviewed their parents. And then these teenagers grew up into adults who entered all walks of life [[[rozmaite koleje losu]]]. They became factory workers and lawyers and bricklayers [[[murarz]]] and doctors, one President of the United States. Some developed alcoholism. A few developed schizophrenia. Some climbed the social ladder [[[wspinać się po drabinie społecznej]]] from the bottom all the way to the very top, and some made that journey in the opposite direction.
The founders of this study would never in their wildest dreams have imagined that I would be standing here today, 75 years later, telling you that the study still continues. Every two years, our patient [[[cierpliwy]]] and dedicated research staff [[[personel]]] calls up our men and asks them if we can send them yet one more set of questions about their lives.
Many of the inner city Boston [[[centrum Bostonu]]] men ask us, „Why do you keep wanting to study me? My life just isn’t that interesting.” The Harvard men never ask that question.
To get the clearest picture of these lives, we don’t just send them questionnaires [[[ankieta]]]. We interview them in their living rooms. We get their medical records from their doctors. We draw their blood [[[pobierać próbki krwi]]], we scan their brains [[[skanować mózg]]], we talk to their children. We videotape them talking with their wives about their deepest concerns [[[najskrytsze problemy]]]. And when, about a decade ago, we finally asked the wives if they would join us as members of the study, many of the women said, „You know, it’s about time.”
So what have we learned? What are the lessons that come from the tens of thousands of pages of information that we’ve generated on these lives? Well, the lessons aren’t about wealth [[[bogactwo]]] or fame [[[sława]]] or working harder and harder. The clearest message that we get from this 75-year study is this: Good relationships [[[relacje]]] keep us happier and healthier. Period [[[kropka]]].
We’ve learned three big lessons about relationships. The first is that social connections [[[relacje społeczne]]] are really good for us, and that loneliness [[[samotność]]] kills. It turns out that people who are more socially connected to family, to friends, to community, are happier, they’re physically healthier, and they live longer than people who are less well connected. And the experience of loneliness turns out to be toxic [[[toksyczny]]]. People who are more isolated than they want to be from others find that they are less happy, their health declines [[[pogarszać się]]] earlier in midlife [[[wek średni]]], their brain functioning declines sooner and they live shorter lives than people who are not lonely. And the sad fact is that at any given time, more than one in five Americans will report that they’re lonely.
And we know that you can be lonely in a crowd [[[tłum]]] and you can be lonely in a marriage [[[małżeństwo]]], so the second big lesson that we learned is that it’s not just the number of friends you have, and it’s not whether or not you’re in a committed relationship [[[związek formalny]]], but it’s the quality [[[jakość]]] of your close relationships that matters [[[mieć znaczenie]]]. It turns out that living in the midst [[[w środku]]] of conflict is really bad for our health. High-conflict marriages, for example, without much affection [[[uczucie]]], turn out to be very bad for our health, perhaps worse than getting divorced [[[rozwieść się]]]. And living in the midst of good, warm relationships is protective [[[mieć działanie ochronne]]].
Once we had followed our men all the way into their 80s, we wanted to look back at them at midlife and to see if we could predict who was going to grow into a happy, healthy octogenarian [[[80-latek]]] and who wasn’t. And when we gathered together everything we knew about them at age 50, it wasn’t their middle age cholesterol levels that predicted how they were going to grow old. It was how satisfied [[[zadowoleni]]] they were in their relationships. The people who were the most satisfied in their relationships at age 50 were the healthiest at age 80. And good, close relationships seem to buffer [[[odgradzać]]] us from some of the slings and arrows [[[dokuczliwości`]]] of getting old. Our most happily partnered [[[żyjący w związkach]]] men and women reported, in their 80s, that on the days when they had more physical pain, their mood [[[nastrój]]] stayed just as happy. But the people who were in unhappy relationships, on the days when they reported more physical pain, it was magnified [[[wzmacniać]]] by more emotional pain.
And the third big lesson that we learned about relationships and our health is that good relationships don’t just protect our bodies, they protect our brains. It turns out that being in a securely attached relationship to another person in your 80s is protective, that the people who are in relationships where they really feel they can count on [[[liczyć na kogoś]]] the other person in times of need [[[potrzeba]]], those people’s memories stay sharper longer [[[zachowywać dłużej dobrą pamięć]]]. And the people in relationships where they feel they really can’t count on the other one, those are the people who experience earlier memory decline [[[pogorszenie]]]. And those good relationships, they don’t have to be smooth [[[łagodny]]] all the time. Some of our octogenarian couples could bicker[[[sprzeczać się]]] with each other day in and day out [[[co dnia]]], but as long as they felt that they could really count on the other when the going got tough [[[gdy sytuacja staje się poważna]]], those arguments didn’t take a toll [[[nie wpływać]]] on their memories.
So this message, that good, close relationships are good for our health and well-being, this is wisdom [[[mądrość]]] that’s as old as the hills[[[wzgórza]]]. Why is this so hard to get and so easy to ignore? Well, we’re human. What we’d really like is a quick fix [[[szybkie lakarstwo]]], something we can get that’ll make our lives good and keep them that way. Relationships are messy [[[skomplikowany]]] and they’re complicated and the hard work of tending to family and friends, it’s not sexy or glamorous [[[nie jest połyskliwa ani efektowna]]]. It’s also lifelong [[[przez całe życie]]]. It never ends. The people in our 75-year study who were the happiest in retirement [[[emerytura]]] were the people who had actively worked to replace workmates I[[[koledzy z pracy]]] with new playmates [[[znajomi]]]. Just like the millennials in that recent survey, many of our men when they were starting out as young adults really believed that fame and wealth and high achievement were what they needed to go after to have a good life. But over and over, over these 75 years, our study has shown that the people who fared the best [[[którym się powiodło]]] were the people who leaned in to relationships [[[dbali o związki]]], with family, with friends, with community.
So what about you? Let’s say you’re 25, or you’re 40, or you’re 60. What might leaning in to relationships even look like?
Well, the possibilities are practically endless [[[niezliczone]]]. It might be something as simple as replacing screen time [[[czas spędzony przed ekranem]]] with people time or livening up a stale [[[zaniedbany]]] relationship by doing something new together, long walks or date nights [[[nocne randki]]], or reaching out to that family member who you haven’t spoken to in years, because those all-too-common [[[całkiem zwyczajne]]] family feuds [[[kłótnie]]] take a terrible toll [[[mają dużą cenę]]] on the people who hold the grudges [[[pamiętać urazy]]].
I’d like to close with a quote [[[cytat]]] from Mark Twain. More than a century ago, he was looking back on his life, and he wrote this: „There isn’t time, so brief is life, for bickerings [[[sprzeczki]]], apologies [[[przeprosiny]]], heartburnings [[[urazy w sercu]]], callings to account [[[rozpamiętywanie]]]. There is only time for loving, and but an instant [[[i to krótki]]], so to speak, for that.”
The good life is built with good relationships.
- Polish script
Niedostępny na stronie TED’a
- Answers to TRUE/FALSE questions
True: 2, 3, 7, 8, 10, 11, False: 1, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 13
(*) Komentarz, co do sposobu korzystania z materiałów pomocniczych podanych na tym blogu
Słuchanie (i oglądanie) prezentacji połączyć można z odświeżeniem swojej znajomości języka angielskiego. Wybrać przy tym można jedną z następujących opcji (podaję od najtrudniejszej do najłatwiejszej):
- wysłuchanie i obejrzenie prezentacji w języku angielskim, bez napisów
- wysłuchanie i obejrzenie prezentacji z napisami angielskimi
- przejrzenie podanego skryptu angielskiego z wyjaśnionymi po polsku trudniejszymi słówkami, a następnie wysłuchanie i obejrzenie prezentacji z napisami angielskimi
- wysłuchanie i obejrzenie prezentacji z napisami w języku polskim
Ta ostatnia opcja oczywiście nie daje korzyści językowych, a jedynie korzyść merytoryczną.
Dodatkowo, w punkcie (2) materiałów pomocniczych podano około 10 pytań po angielsku, typu TRUE/FALSE, umożliwiających weryfikację zrozumienia tekstu, a dalej także kilka pytań otwartych. Odpowiedzi do pytań TRUE/FALSE z punktu (2), są podane w punkcie (6).